Solin (Latin and Italian: Salona) is a town in Dalmatia, Croatia. It is situated 8 km northeast of Split, on the Adriatic Sea and the Jadro River.
Solin developed on the location of ancient town of Salona which was the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia and the birthplace of Emperor Diocletian. After the arrival of Avars and Slavs in the 7th century town was destroyed, and its refugees moved to settlement in and around Diocletian's palace, "Spalatum" (Split), turning it into a fortified town. In the Early Middle Ages Solin was part of the Croatian territory and played an important role in Medieval Croatian state, being one of capital cities.
In the 20th century intensive industrialisation process of the Split basin made Solin no more than a suburb of Split. Today, with its independent municipal status, Solin is part of the Split conurbation, well connected with other towns. Besides industry, a tourism is being developed lately based on numerous archaeological sites and Solin's distinctive image that comes from many urban parks along the Jadro River.
Solin is situated north of the Split peninsula, in a basin surrounded by mountains Kozjak (779 m) to the north and Mosor (1339 m) to the east. The ancient city of Salona developed near the estuary of Jadro River, and the later medieval settlement was formed on one of the several islands formed by the Jadro River, which is where today's center is also situated.
The city covers an area of 18 km², situated in the central part of the Split conurbation, 8 km north of Split, 6 km east of Kaštela, 22 km east of Trogir and 4 km south of Klis.
Residential and business parts of the city are located in the middle part of the river's flow, and on the gentle slopes that make the Solin basin. Industrial areas occupy a small valley of the upper basin of the Jadro, as well as large areas to the west of the center, on the easternmost tip of the bay of Kaštela where industrial and service port is situated. The ruins of the ancient Salona are located in the middle, to the west of today center.
Solin is divided into eight neighbourhoods: Centar, Priko vode, Srednja strana, Sveti Kajo, Rupotina, Vranjic, Mravince and Kučine.
The climate is Mediterranean, with mild winters and hot summers. During the winter, a strong north-eastern wind Bura occurs frequently.
Split is the economic and administrative center of Middle Dalmatia, with about 200,000 inhabitants.
It is also the jumping-off point for exploration of the coast and islands of the beautiful Croatian Adriatic. The site was first settled when, at the end of the third century AD, the Roman Emperor Diocletian built his palace here.
The importance of Diocletian's Palace far transcends local significance because of its level of preservation and the buildings of succeeding historical periods built within its walls, which today form the very heart of old Split.
Split's growth became particularly rapid in the 7th century, when the inhabitants of the destroyed Greek and Roman metropolis Salonae (present-day Solin) took refuge within its walls. The lovely ruins of Solin outside the city can still be explored today. In the Middle Ages, Split was an autonomous commune.
Many of Split's historical and cultural buildings can be found within the walls of Diocletian's Palace. In addition, numerous museums, the National Theatre, and old churches and other archeological sites in the Split region make it an important cultural attraction.
Split is a busy port, with an international airport and regular ferry services with the nearby islands, the north and south Adriatic, Italy and Greece. The merchant and passenger ships of the Split shipyards may be encountered in almost all the seas of the world. In addition, the city has large chemical works, metallurgy plants, and workshops for the production of solar cells. The fertile fields around Split represent a good base for agriculture, while cultural monuments, superb landscapes and unparalleled seascapes make it a tourist's wonderland. Split is also a university seat and host to numerous scientific institutions.